6. Mastitis management
Time: Wednesday 15th May 15:30 hrs
Venue: Meeting room "Nørrebros Runddel"
Moderator: Olav Østerås
O6.1-1 - Dry cow management, history, development and future perspectives
Païvi Rajala-Schultz, University of Helsinki, Finland
Dry period lays a foundation for the next lactation and its importance for the future udder health and productivity of dairy cows is well recognized. Dry cow therapy has played an important role in mastitis control over the decades, but currently changes in the way it is implemented are occurring. Additionally, continuously increasing milk yield of our modern dairy cows is creating challenges for the process of drying-off. How did and how will we dry off cows efficiently and have them calving with healthy udders?
O6.1-2 - Unusual Outbreak of Mastitis caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
Rama Falk, Israel Dairy Board
Here we report an exceptional outbreak of bovine mastitis caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The prevalence of bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus is very low in Israel (1-3% of isolates) for many years. MRSA isolates comprise for 0.1 to 1.4 % of S. aureus isolates during 2011 to 2018. In the beginning of 2018, an increasing unusual number of MRSA isolates were detected in farm M, raising the concern of an ongoing outbreak. Farm M is a cooperative farm, with 1,050 lactating cows, using a 60 units rotary milking-parlor, with relatively high mean DHI BTSCC (350,000 cells/mL). By the end of 2018 the overall number of cows exhibiting MRSA in milk samples reached 280 cows (28%). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests using disk diffusion method indicated that all MRSA isolates were resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, cefoxitime, ubrolexin (cefalexin & kanamycin) and marbofloxacin; and susceptible in vitro to cefquinome, micospectone (spectinomycin & lincomycin) and rifaximine. Representative MRSA were genotyped by PCR sequencing and assigned to spa type t011, multi-locus sequence type (MLST) CC398 and confirmed to be positive for mecA. These characteristics are typical to 'livestock-associated MRSA' (LA-MRSA), a major cause of disease in a variety of livestock animals, mainly in pigs. In addition, 4 of 12 farm workers were diagnosed as LA-MRSA nasal carriers by bacterial culture. Possibly LA-MRSA spread in this herd due to breaches in infection prevention and control practices applied in this farm. Whole-genome sequencing analysis will be performed to study the clonality and virulence of LA-MRSA strains from farm M and from other farms in Israel.
O6.1-3 - Aetiological profiling of bovine mastitis and an alternate approach for its management in India
S K Rana, General Manager & Group Head, Animal Health, National Dairy Development Board (NDDB), Anand, India, Pin 388001
A V Hari Kumar, Sr. Manager, Animal Health, National Dairy Development Board, Anand, India, Pin 388001
K S N Leela Surendra, Scientist-I, NDDB R&D Laboratory, Animal Health, National Dairy Development Board, Hyderabad, India, Pin 500032
Pankaj Dutta, Manager, Animal Health, National Dairy Development Board, Anand, India, Pin 388001
Vijay S Bahekar, Scientist-I, NDDB R&D Laboratory, Animal Health, National Dairy Development Board, Hyderabad, India, Pin 500032
Ponnanna N M, Scientist-III, NDDB R&D Laboratory, Animal Health, National Dairy Development Board, Hyderabad, India, Pin 500032
G K Sharma, OSD, Animal Health, National Dairy Development Board, Anand, India, Pin 388001
Profiling of aetiological agents of bovine mastitis and its control by alternative approaches were attempted under Indian field condition. Major bacterial agents identified from clinical (CM) and sub-clinical (SCM) mastitis cases were Staphylococcus aureus (20%), Streptococcus uberis (17%), Streptococcus agalactiae (4%), Klebsiella sp (8%), E. coli (6%), Enterococcus sp (2%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1%). Around 30% of S. aureus, 35% of E.coli and 80% of Klebsiella sp isolates exhibited resistance to commonly used antibiotics viz. Ampicillin, Cefazolin, Cefoxitin, Erythromycin, Gentamicin, Ciprofloxacin, Tetracycline, Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole. Varying degree of AMR determinants genes viz., blaTEM-1B/CTX/SHV, qnrS1, sul1/2, tet(A/K), aac (6')-aph(2''), strA/B, dfrG were recorded in E. coli, Klebsiella sp and S. aureus isolates. Presence of strA/B, blaTEM-1B, CTX-71, msr(c), mdf (A), qnrS1 genes in Enterococcus sp. and blaPAO, fosA, catB7 in P. aeruginosa were also recorded. More than 34% of S. aureus isolates were mecA positive and spa types t7287, t7684, t315, t359, t131, t4812 were identified.
A pilot control programme is implemented by the National Dairy Development Board covering nearly 1500 Dairy cooperative societies located in 23 milk unions in 9 states of the country targeting more than 200000 lactating bovine. Where SCM is identified by California Mastitis Test through extensive testing of milk (n=5,12,750) and positive animals are treated with oral regimen of Tris-sodium citrate (TSC). A drastic reduction by around 35% in prevalence of SCM is recorded. Management of CM is explored by topical application of Ethno-Veterinary Herbal Preparation (EVHP) of Aloe vera, Curcuma longa and calcium hydroxide on affected udder. A recovery rate of around 79% CM was recorded after intervention in 29365 mastitis cases.
Management of mastitis by use of TSC and EVHP was found efficacious and cost effective alternative approach rationalising use of antibiotics.
O6.1-4 - Herd prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis and Streptococcus agalactiae in Swedish dairy herds
Landin, H., Växa Sweden Animal Health Development, Stockholm, Sweden
Lundberg Å., Växa Sweden Animal Health Development, Stockholm, Sweden
Ohlson, A., Växa Sweden Animal Health Development, Stockholm, Sweden
Introduction: Mycoplasma (M) bovis and Streptococcus (Str.) agalactiae are two bacteria causing significant mastitis problems worldwide. In Sweden, they are considered to be emerging pathogens. M. bovis was first found in 2011. A limited bulk tank milk (BTM) screening of Swedish dairy herds in 2013 showed a prevalence of 0.5 and 5.8%, for M. bovis and Str. agalactiae, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the national prevalence of M. bovis and Str. Agalactiae in Swedish dairy herds, to map out the results geographically and to investigate possible associations with herd level factors.
Methods: We collected BTM from 3899 dairy herds in May 2016, corresponding to 97 % of all dairy herds. Samples were collected via automatic BTM sampling and analyzed using real-time PCR. DHI database data was used to analyse herd level risk factors.
Results: Out of the 3899 sampled herds, 10 were positive for M. bovis (0.3 %) and 158 for Str. agalactiae (4.0 %). Herds positive for either of the agents were larger compared to negative herds. In addition, Str. agalactiae positive herds had a higher BTM somatic cell count compared to negative herds. M. bovis, was only found in the south of Sweden. The prevalence of Str. agalactiae varied between counties from 0 to 10.7% and high prevalence was found in counties in the southern part as well as in the far north of Sweden.
Conclusions: The study shows a low national prevalence of M. bovis and Str. agalactiae, and that there has been little change in prevalence between 2013 and 2016. The geographical distribution showed large distances between positive herds, indicating that animal trade is a probable route of transmission. Negative herds were found within highly infected areas which indicate that biosecurity actions can prevent spread between herds. To prevent further spread between herds it is critical to motivate farmers to purchase animals only from documented free herds.
O6.1-5 - Species-specific effect of non-aureus staphylococci on quarter milk yield and somatic cell count
Dimitri Valckenier, M-team & Mastitis and Milk Quality Research Unit, Department of Reproduction, Obstetrics and Herd Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium
Sofie Piepers, M-team & Mastitis and Milk Quality Research Unit, Department of Reproduction, Obstetrics and Herd Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium
Sarne De Vliegher, M-team & Mastitis and Milk Quality Research Unit, Department of Reproduction, Obstetrics and Herd Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium
As a group, non-aureus staphylococci (NAS) are the most prevalent cause of intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy cows in many regions, but the clinical relevance of NAS IMI is still under debate and contradictory results have been reported. This longitudinal study aimed at determining the effect of IMI with the most relevant NAS species in early lactation on the quarter (q) SCC and quarter milk yield (qMY) during the first 4 months of lactation and evaluating the impact of transient, persistent and new IMI with NAS in early lactation on the qSCC and qMY during the first 4 months of lactation.
In total, 82 Holstein Friesian heifers housed in 3 Flemish dairy farms equipped with automatic milking systems were enrolled. Quarter milk samples were collected from 1-4 until 130 DIM on a biweekly basis for bacteriological culturing and determination of the SCC. All isolates phenotypically identified as NAS were analyzed using tDNA-PCR or sequencing of the 16S rRNA or rpoB gene.
In total, 363 isolates were phenotypically identified as NAS and further identified to the species level. Staph. chromogenes was the most prevalent species at 1-4 DIM (35.7% of 68 isolates) and in the first 4 months of lactation (43.25%).
Quarters infected with S. chromogenes (n = 20) at 1-4 DIM had a significantly higher LnSCC than noninfected quarters (n = 220) (LnSCC = 4.98 and 4.20, respectively, P < 0.001). The LnSCC of quarters infected with another NAS species (n = 34) at 1-4 DIM was not different from the LnSCC of noninfected quarters (P = 0.96).
Quarters having a persistent IMI with a specific NAS species had the highest LnSCC (LnSCC = 5.43, P < 0.001), followed by quarters with a new IMI at 15-18 DIM (LnSCC = 4.77, P < 0.001). The LnSCC of quarters having a transient IMI with a NAS species was not significantly higher compared to noninfected quarters (P = 0.08). The qIMI status at 1-4 and 15-18 DIM was not significantly associated with the daily qMY in the first 4 months after calving.
Time: Thursday 16th May 13:30 hrs
Venu: Meeting room "Nørrebros Runddel"
Moderator: Carsten Thure Kirkeby
O6.2-1 - The udder health in the Nordic countries
Olav Østerås, TINE SA, Norway
Håkan Landin, Växa, Sweden
Laura Kulkas, Valio, Finland
Michael Farre, Seges, Denmark
Jarle Reiersen, Mjólkursamsalan
The Nordic group within milk production (NMSM) has from 1993 to 2017 yearly gathered milk quality data from the respective animal recordings. The aim has been to gather, calculate and do comparison of the data in the same way. This work has inspired for improving the udder health in all countries. The results have repeatedly been presented and discussed at a yearly summit. The data includes incidence of mastitis treatment (IMT), dry cow treatment (DCT), bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC), cow milk somatic cell count (CMSCC) and percentage of the latter above 200 000 cells ml-1. Other data were also gathered but are not relevant for this conference. The results illustrate large difference between the countries, but also a strong progress. There has been a huge reduction for all countries concerning IMT; in Denmark from 0.54 to 0.197, Finland 0.32 to 0.126, Norway 0.51 to 0.144 and Sweden 0.25 to 0.084. BMSCC also illustrate a reduction; in Denmark from 370 to 204, Finland 205 to 128, Norway 185 to 117, Iceland 378 to 204, and a stable situation in Sweden with 185 to 188 1,000 cells ml-1 milk during the same period. Concerning DCT there is a slightly other pictures during the lasts four years; in Denmark, Norway and Finland, respectively an increase from 0.15 to 0.39; 0.02 to 0.04 and 0.08 to 0.12, and for Sweden and Iceland a decrease from 0.30 to 0.27, and 0.17 to 0.15, respectively. All countries had a large reduction in IMT and most of them had at same time a reduction in BMSCC. The arithmetic mean CMSCC reflect the level of BMSCC in the countries while the geometric mean CMSCC was almost the same. There is a large difference in proportion of DCT between the Nordic countries and this is not fully reflected in the BMSCC. The NMSM data indicates that IMT and DCT can be reduced without detrimental effect on milk quality and animal welfare. Further studies should be made to establish a consensus concerning the optimal level of antibiotic therapy.
O6.2-2 - Clinical mastitis; incidence, causative pathogens and risk factors in dairy cows in Bangladesh
Shuvo Singha, Department of Medicine and Surgery, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, CVASU, Chittagong, Bangladesh
Delower Hossain, Department of Medicine and Public Health, Sher-E-Bangla Agricultural University, Chittagong, Bangladesh
Gerrit Koop, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, UU, The Netherlands
Marjolein Derks, Farm Technology, Wageningen University & Research, WU, The Netherlands
MD Ahsanul Hoque, Department of Medicine and Surgery, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chittagong, Bangladesh
MD Mizanur Rahman, Department of Medicine and Surgery, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, CVASU, Chittagong, Bangladesh
Ylva Persson, National Veterinary Institute, SVA, Uppsala, Sweden
Globally, mastitis is an important production disease in the dairy industry and has a great economic impact due to reduced milk yield, milk quality deterioration, treatment costs, culling, risk for antimicrobial resistance and reduced animal welfare. A cohort study was conducted on 24 randomly selected dairy farms in Chittagong during six months to (1) estimate the incidence of clinical mastitis (CM) at cow level, (2) identify risk factors and (3) isolate causative pathogens. CM was defined as grade-I (changes in milk), grade-II (changes in milk and udder) and grade-III (changes in milk and udder along with systemic changes). Farm and animal level fixed and dynamic data were recorded. Milk samples were collected from the affected cows before administering any antibiotics. In total, 1383 lactating cows were at risk and 204 cases of CM occurred during the study period. Incidence rate was estimated as 43.9 (95% CI: 38.2 to 50.5%) cases of CM/100 cows/year where grade-I (10.5 cases/100 cows/year) and grade-II (25.5 cases/100 cows/year) were greater than grade-III (7.8 cases/100 cows/year). The incidence rate of CM in dairy cattle varied substantially between farms, ranging from 103.5 cases/100 cows/year to 0 cases/100 cows/year. Using a Generalized Linear Mixed Model we determined the following factors to be associated with a higher occurrence of CM: high milk yield (?17 liters/day) versus lower milk yield (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.6-3.9); early (OR 2.7, 95% CI 0.9-8.3) and late (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.0-13.0) lactation compared to mid lactation, and finally cows with a body condition score (BCS) >3.25 (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.9-2.1) compared to a BCS
O6.2-3 - Udder pathogens and risk factors of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in Rwanda
Jean Baptiste Ndahetuye , Reproduction, Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden
Janvier Twambazimana , University of Rwanda, College of Agriculture, Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Busogo, Rwanda Ann Nyman, Växa Sverige, Stockholm, Sweden
Ylva Persson, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden
Renée Båge, Reproduction, Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden
Mastitis is a thread for needed milk for food security in Rwanda. The objective of this study was to evaluate its prevalence, causative udder pathogens, and cow and herd associated with the disease in dairy cows linked milk collection centers (MCC) in Rwanda. Screening with California Mastitis Test (CMT) was done for 572 cows from 404 herds from two MCCs in each four provinces. Milk from udder quarters with CMT score >2 (scale 1-5) were sampled for bacteriological analysis by culture and a final identification with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Multivariable mixed effect and ordinary logistic regression analyses were performed to identify cow and herd level risk factors associated with SCM or Staphylococcus (S.) aureus infection in the cows. The prevalence of SCM was 37.3% at quarters level and 62 % at cow level. There was a significant (P >0.05) difference in SCM prevalence among the MCCs, with highest prevalence in the two MCC in the norther province. Bacteria were isolated in 66,3% of the cultured milk samples, whereas culture-negative and contaminated samples were 30.7 % and 24 %, respectively. Non-aureus staphylococci (NAS) and S. aureus were the most prevalent pathogens, representing more than half of all bacteriological findings. Staphylococcus chromogenes and S. epedermidis were the most prevalent NAS identified. Beta lactamase production was present in 65.% of all staphyloccoci isolates. The risk factors analysis indicated that an increasing stage of lactation, dirty udder and legs, no calf suckling of the dam, not feeding concentrates were associated with increased odd ration of SCM in a cow. Absence of fore milking stripping was the only factor associated with S. aureus infection. High SCM prevalence could affect yields and milk quality at MCC level. Control of the identified risks factor and biosecurity by adjustements in practices could contribute to lowering SCM in Rwanda.
O6.2-4 - Determinants for treatment and culling in relation to mastitis in Danish dairy cattle herds
Maya Gussmann, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Cow-level risk factors for antimicrobial treatment and culling based on data from the Danish Cattle Database were investigated in two separate analyses. Potential risk factors considered were clinical registrations relevant to mastitis, along with PCR results, milk yield and somatic cell counts from the monthly milk recording data, as well as parity and lactation stage. For the culling analyses, treatment for mastitis or other diseases were also included. Herd-wise logistic regression models were then run with outcomes of 1) antimicrobial treatment for udder health during lactation and 2) dry cow treatment. A third outcome of voluntary culling was explored through herd-wise survival analyses using five separate animal groups: mid lactation heifers, late lactation heifers, early lactation cows, mid lactation cows, and late lactation cows. The results suggested that there were various patterns, both in antimicrobial treatments and culling in the Danish dairy cattle herds. For example, while a higher average milk yield led to a higher probability for treatment and a lower probability for culling in nearly all herds, parity 3+ cows had a lower probability for treatment in some herds and a higher probability for treatment in others (with coefficients ranging from -2.2 to 1.4 and median 0.04).
Clustering showed that farmers have different behaviors in selecting cows for treatment or culling in relation to udder health. Some farmers mostly seem to focus on the cow's production level, while others use a cow's age as a determinant. There are also farmers that seem to be more focused on mastitis indicators or, in the case of culling, whether the cow had been treated with antibiotics. This illustrates that farmers have different priorities and behaviors when it comes to udder health management. Udder health professionals should consider the farmer's priority in order to ensure the adoption of advice on management of mastitis.
O6.2-5 - Prevention of mastitis in early lactation first parity cows
Persson Waller K, National Veterinary Institute and Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden Lundberg Å, Växa Sverige, Stockholm, Sweden
Nyman A-K, Växa Sverige, Stockholm, Sweden
More knowledge on how to achieve good udder health in early lactation first parity cows (FPC) is needed. Thus, the aim of the study was to find housing and management routines before calving that can prevent high cow somatic cell counts (CSCC) in early lactation FPC by comparing herds with good or poor udder health in such cows.
Approximately 180 dairy herds affiliated to the official cow control scheme and with a minimum of 60 cows were included. The herds were selected based on the CSCC of FPC at the first two test milkings after calving during a 3-year period. One third of the herds had a relatively high proportion of FPC with a low CSCC (100 000/ml) at both test milkings, and one third had a relatively high proportion of FPC with a high CSCC at the first and a low CSCC at the second test milking. Each herd was visited once during winter 2018 or 2019 by specially trained technicians. A questionnaire was used to gather information on housing and management routines of heifers from birth to calving. In addition, heifer hygiene and hock lesions were registered as well as occurrence of diarrhoea, respiratory disease and sucking in calves. Special focus was on milk-fed calves in group housing, and heifers in early or late pregnancy. Differences between the 3 groups of herds will be investigated using mixed effect regression models.
Preliminary data from 81 herds indicate that heifer management in many herds differs from current recommendations. For example, 57% and 67% of the herds may give milk from cows with clinical mastitis or high CSCC, respectively, to calves; 77% house heifers in late pregnancy with dry cows, and 94% do not have a calving area dedicated only to FPC. Moreover, sucking of teats, udder oedema before/at calving and blind quarters occurred among heifers in many herds. This is an on-going study. More results will be presented at the conference.
O6.2-6 - Supporting a move towards more selective use of dry cow antibiotics
SJ Lacy-Hulbert, DairyNZ Ltd
JH Williamson, DairyNZ Ltd
B Kuhn-Sherlock, DairyNZ Ltd
S McDougall, Cognosco, AnexaFVC
Concerns about aseptic administration of internal teat sealants to uninfected cows at dry off are a major barrier to adoption of selective use of dry cow antibiotics on NZ farms. These issues occur despite research supporting the protective effect of bismuth-based, internal teat sealants in uninfected cows in the dry period. We tested the hypothesis that farmer attitude or intention is a primary driver for selective use of antibiotics, rather than factors such as milk quality, farm system or herd characteristics.
Herd owner/managers associated with 36 herds, representing approximately 25,000 cows, drawn from across NZ, were surveyed for dry off management practices and their attitudes, skills and aspirations towards less use of antibiotics. In the 3 weeks preceding dry off, bulk milk from each herd was examined for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and other mastitis pathogens. A random selection of cows (~75 per herd) were sampled at dry off to determine the prevalence of intramammary infection. A subset of 50 low somatic cell count (SCC) cows (<200,000 cells/mL) received internal teat sealant without dry cow antibiotics at dry off, and were assessed early in the subsequent lactation for SCC and risk of clinical mastitis. Association analysis revealed two distinct clusters of farmers; one deemed 'Open to Change', and the other, 'Resistant to Change'. Across two dry periods, 75% and 90% of the Open to Change group practised selective dry cow treatment, compared with 38% and 31% for the Resistant to Change group. Despite the dichotomy, there was little variation in prevalence of infection at dry off, clinical mastitis incidence or SCC during early lactation between clusters. This supports prior research that internal teat sealants confer sufficient protection for low SCC cows.
Successful adoption of selective use of dry cow antibiotics will require continued focus on attitudes and risk management approaches by individual farmers.
P32 - Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus mastitis with recombinant bovine GM-CSF
Yoshio Kiku, National Institute of Animal Health, NARO
Tomomi Ozawa, National Institute of Animal Health, NARO
Hideyuki Takahashi, Japan Association for Techno-innovation in Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Shiro Kushibiki, Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science, NARO
Mitsuhiro Miyazawa, Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, NARO
Ken-ichiro Tatematsu, Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, NARO
Shigeki Inumaru, National Institute of Animal Health, NARO
Hiroyuki Shingu, Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science, NARO
Yuya Nagasawa, National Institute of Animal Health, NARO
Tomohito Hayashi, National Institute of Animal Health, NARO
Introduction: The spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens requires new treatments for bovine mastitis. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of the intramammary infusion of recombinant bovine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rbGM-CSF) on quarter milk levels of immune cell states and shedding pattern of somatic cell count (SCC), and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) count in quarters affected with SA mastitis.
Methods: Eighteen cows with naturally SA infected-mastitis were used. As the GM-CSF group (n=9), the infusion of rbGM-CSF (0.4 mg/5 ml/quarter) was conducted after the morning milking on day 0. As the control group (n=9), 5 ml of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was also infused. Milk samples were collected prior to the treatment (day 0) and 0.25, 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14 days post infusion of rbGM-CSF or PBS. Chemiluminescence (CL) activity, mononuclear cell populations, SCC and SA count in milk were measured in order to evaluate the therapeutic effect of rbGM-CSF.
Results: The SCC had a transient rise on day 0.25 after the infusion of rbGM-CSF and were followed by a smooth decline on days 3, 7 and 14. Seven of nine cows (77.8%) in the GM-CSF group showed a decreased SCC on day 14 compared to day 0. The SA count in the GM-CSF group were lower than the control group at day 7. In the GM-CSF group, the CL activity tended to be higher on day 0.25 after the infusion of solution and was significantly lower on day 14. The percentages of CD4+ and CD4+CD45RO+ cells increased on days 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14 post infusion of rbGM-CSF.
Conclusions: The results suggest that the intramammary infusion of rbGM-CSF has a high potential as a therapeutic agent for bovine mastitis. Our study indicates that the infusion of rbGM-CSF accelerates the bactericidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and the memory function of helper T cells in the mammary gland infected with mastitis, and these cells induce the enhancement of innate immunity in the mammary gland.
P33 - Procaine penicillin for mastitis. Have we forgotten how good it is and is it getting even better?
Mick Clews, Vetora, New Zealand
This study compares outcomes of clinical mastitis treated with intramammary procaine penicillin and the market leading cloxacillin and examines if MIC can explain differences in case cure rates.
16,500 cows from 35 seasonal calving dairy herds were monitored for clinical mastitis. Pre- and post-treatment samples were cultured, isolates identified, and MIC determined using Liofilchem® test strips. Cows were treated with either 1) cloxacillin (CL) 5 times s.i.d., 2) procaine penicillin (PP) 3 times b.i.d., or 3) the PP treatment followed by further treatment with a product containing both PP and CL (PC) 3 times s.i.d. starting 48 hours after initial case diagnosis. Treatment regimens were selected to conform with the New Zealand registered use. Case cure rate (CCR) (both clinical and bacteriological) was measured.
Of the 767cases S. uberis (SU) was most commonly isolated (43.0%), followed by S. aureus (SA) (15.29%). In the case of SU, PP had a higher CCR than CL (76.83% vs 61.25%, p=0.01). In the case of SA, the combined PC treatment had a higher CCR than CL (40.96% vs 24.36%, p=0.02) and PP tended to be better than CL (CCR = 40%, p=0.08). The MIC50 and MIC90 of CL (0.125 and 0.250µg/ml) were higher than those of PP (0.023 and 0.190µg/ml) in SA, and much higher in SU (0.380 vs. 4.0, and 0.047 vs. 0.190µg/ml, for CL and PP, respectively). There was no difference in MIC50 for cases that cured vs. non-cured regarding either treatment. CCR for SU cases treated with CL, was lower though for isolates when MIC was ?2µg/ml (p=0.04).
The MIC values for PP in this study were lower than previous studies in NZ and fit a trend of significant decrease in regards both SU and SA over the last 30 years. 32% of SU isolates had a MIC of CL ?2µg/ml which is higher than the minimum inter-treatment concentration (ITCmin) achieved in milk. The MIC for all other isolate/treatment combinations was below the ITCmin. Individual MIC was only predictive of clinical outcome when it was >ITCmin. Better case outcome, supported by lower MIC (particularly in the predominant SU) and a New Zealand Vet Assoc. classification as a more responsible medicine class, support the intramammary use of procaine penicillin over cloxacillin for clinical mastitis.
P34 - Immune response of dairy cows following vaccination with UBAC® in a clinical trial
Rosa Collado, R&D Department, HIPRA
Ainhoa Puig, R&D Department, HIPRA
Eva Perozo, R&D Department, HIPRA
Judit Moreno, R&D Department, HIPRA
David Sabaté, R&D Department, HIPRA
Antoni Prenafeta, R&D Department, HIPRA
Ricard March, R&D Department, HIPRA
A new vaccine against Streptococcus uberis intramammary infections in cows, UBAC® (HIPRA), has been developed (Collado et al., 2018). The aim of this study was to evaluate the serological immune response against the vaccine antigen (Biofilm Adhesion Component, BAC) during a clinical trial (Puig et al., 2018).
A clinical field trial was performed in order to assess the efficacy of UBAC® in the reduction of S.uberis clinical mastitis (CM) up to the half-lactation period according to a 3-dose vaccine schedulle. In this context, blood samples from UBAC® (n=25) and placebo (n=21) groups were collected before each dose of the vaccine and 1, 3 and 6 months after the 3rd dose. Immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) response against the BAC antigen in serum samples was assessed by the ELISA method described in Collado et al., (2018). Serological data were compared using the Mann-Whitney test (SPSSv.22). Significance was declared at p?0.05.
Antibody levels against the BAC antigen increased from the 1st dose of UBAC®, reaching a maximum 1 month after the 3rd dose. They then slowly decreased up to the end of the monitoring period, remaining much higher than in the placebo group at all time points. After the 1st dose, the UBAC® group showed significantly higher antibody levels than the placebo group (p<0.001) throughout the monitoring period. Additionally, the incidence of animals with S.uberis CM during this period was significantly lower (p<0.017) in the UBAC® group than in the placebo group.
Results obtained in this study suggest that antibodies against the BAC antigen could have a role in the reduction of the incidence of clinical mastitis caused by S. uberis. Therefore, a booster dose of the vaccine 6 months after the prime vaccination is recommended in order to maintain high antibody levels against the BAC antigen in vaccinated animals.
P35 - Efficacy of a salicylic-acid bedding conditioner in dry cow housing on new intra mammary infections
Sietsma, S. , University Farm Animal Practice, Harmelen, the Netherlands
Nielen, M. , Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht, the Netherlands
Vernooij, J.C.M. , Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht, the Netherlands
Van Werven, T. , Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht, the Netherlands & University Farm Animal Practice, Harmelen, the Netherlands
Over the last decades a changing trend from contagious to environmental mastitis is seen in the relative impact of mastitis causing pathogens. An important measure to control environmental mastitis is reducing bacterial exposure at the teat end, which should be reflected in a reduction of new intramammary infections (IMI). Our study investigates the efficacy of the use of salicylic-acid based bedding conditioner on the rate of new IMI during the dry period.
For this randomized clinical trial 10 herds were selected with new IMI rate during the dry period of at least 20%. On all farms 2 separate areas were created in the dry cow housing and treatment was added daily to the bedding in one area. Animals were randomly allocated to control or treatment area and stayed there till calving. Farms were monthly visited to check protocol follow-up and collect individual cow data. SCC-data was collected on cow-level from the DHI records of the participating farms, and standard definitions for new IMI were based on SCC only.
A total of 688 animals were randomly allocated. Animals that stayed the dry period in the treatment group had a new IMI rate of 19%, animals that stayed in the control group 11%. At 7 farms the new IMI rate was higher in the treatment group than in the control group.
Analysis with multivariable logistic regression showed an Odds Ratio of 2 (95% CI 1.1-3.7) for new IMI in the treatment group, taking into account cow and herd level confounding variables, such as parity, dry cow therapy and kg of milk the last 24 hours before drying off.
Despite the drying and disinfectant characteristics of the bedding conditioner, the use of this bedding conditioner did not reduce the rate of new IMI during the dry period. Further research is needed to unravel the mechanism of the salicylic-acid which might cause an imbalance in the natural flora of the teat end leading to less protection against environmental pathogens or might affect the integrity of the keratin plug.
P36 - On-farm culture system as a tool to reduce antimicrobials usage -10 years´ experience in Czechia
Josef Prasek, Prasek, JP, Ruminant and Swine Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Brno, Czech Republic. Veterinary practitioner
Martin Plesko, Plesko, MP, Ruminant and Swine Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Brno, Czech Republic
Jiri Smola, Smola, JS, Ruminant and Swine Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Brno, Czech Republic
On-farm culture system (OFC) was introduced to the Czech Republic in 2009. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of OFC on antibiotic use, clinical cure rate and antimicrobial resistance of clinical mastitis causal agents on a commercial farm (450 cows) during 10 years.
Mild and moderate cases of clinical mastitis were sampled and examined, using the OFC system MicroMastTM (Tri-plate: Gram positive (G+), Gram negative (G-) selective), CZ. Cows with systemic signs of illness and chronic cases were excluded from the study. Based on results, individual treatment protocol was defined. G- growth and no growth cases were not treated with antibiotics (atb). G+ growth and mixed growth (max 2 pathogens) received antimicrobials. The day after therapy, a second sample of milk was cultured to check treatment efficacy. Strains obtained were tested for sensitivity to antimicrobials. From 2009 to 2011, OFC identified 33.4% of 742 mastitis cases as G- or no growth and 66.6% as G+ with atb treatment; 2012: 48,5% of 575 cases were G- or no growth and 51,4% G+ with atb; 2013-2014: 40.1% of 462 cases were G- or no growth and 59.9% G+ with atb; in 2015-2016: 43.2% of 659 cases G- or no growth and 56.8% G+ with atb and in 2017-2018: 53.9% of 633 cases were G- or no growth and 46.1% G+ with atb.
The targeted antibiotic choice and treatment duration with regard to aetiology improved treatment efficacy of G+ mastitis cases over 90%.
Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis multiresistant strains of were detected in 2010-2013. No multiresistant strains were found in 2014-2018.
Antibiotics consumption was reduced by 20.4% in 2009-2011, compared to the treatment protocol used without of OFC. In 2012-2018, the antimicrobial treatment of affected quarters decreased from 59.9% to 46.1%.
The systemic use of OFC as an integral part of mastitis management is an effective tool to reduce antibiotic use on dairy farms and enables to improve efficacy of clinical mastitis treatment.
P37 - Maintenance of Staphylococcus spp producing biofilms in a herd treated by homeopathy
Zafalon, L.F., Embrapa Southeast Livestock, São Carlos, Brazil
Cunha, M.L.R.S., São Paulo State University, Botucatu, Brazil
Vaso, C. O., Centro Universitário Central Paulista, São Carlos, Brazil
Barbosa, T.A., São Paulo State University, Botucatu, Brazil
Ferreira, E.M., São Paulo State University, Jaboticabal, Brazil
Staphylococci present pathogenicity factors, such as the production of biofilms, and the possibility of these bacteria remaining in the mammary gland of cows treated with homeopathy is questioned, even after the use of these alternative therapies. This study investigated Staphylococcus spp in the milk of cows treated with homeopathy, and the in vitro formation of biofilms by these pathogens. Milk samples were collected to determine the somatic cell count (SCC), and duplicate pooled milk samples were collected over a 12-month period to identify Staphylococcus species. The cows were divided in two groups: treated and untreated. The biofilm was characterized phenotypically by the adhesion method on polystyrene plates. The results were analyzed using the Chi-square test to examine the association between treatment and biofilm production. The odds ratio was calculated to determine if one group of animals had a higher chance of producing biofilms than the other. S. aureus was the species with the highest occurrence in the untreated and treated groups during the study, i.e., 42.5% and 31.9%, respectively. In the untreated group, 2 (5.0%) bacteria presented strong adherence, S. epidermidis and S. warneri. The nine species (13.0%) identified in the cows treated with homeopathy were classified as strongly adherent, and 5 (55.6%) of them were S. epidermidis. The SCC of all the cows in which this species was isolated was higher than 990,000 cells/mL of milk. A significant association was found between homeopathic treatment and biofilm production in treated cows (P=0.013). The odds of isolating Staphylococcus biofilms in treated cows were 2.98-fold higher than in the untreated group (confidence interval: 1.24, 7.18). The capacity of biofilm production remained a pathogenicity factor in Staphylococcus strains isolated in the milk of cows with subclinical mastitis treated with homeopathy. Financial support: Grant no. 2017/08979-7 from São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP).
P38 - Diagnosis, SCC, biofilm and antibiotic resistance in Non aureus staphylococcus species in SA
Petzern Inge-Marie, Department of Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Onderstepoort, University of Pretoria, Private bag X04 Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa
Karzis Joanne, Department of Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Onderstepoort, University of Pretoria, Private bag X04 Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa Qekwana Nenene, , Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Onderstepoort, University of Pretoria, Private bag X04 Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa
Lufuno Phophi, Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Onderstepoort, University of Pretoria, Private bag X04 Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa
Composite cow milk samples of all lactating cows in dairy herds are examined as part of a pro-active management programme in South Africa. Non aureus staphylococci (NAS) were isolated from milk samples of 6.2% to 35% of lactating cows in SA dairy herds during 2017 and 2018. The somatic cell count (SCC) level of composite cow milk samples from which NAS were isolated, varied extensively. A cost effective method that could be introduced into the routine diagnostic udder health programme was sought to identify specific species of NAS.
The following three diagnostic methods: the API Staph, Maldi Tof (Bruker) and 16s diagnostic sequencing were used to identify NAS species isolated from 20 dairy herds, and the results were compared. The correlation between the Maldi Tof results and 16s was 84.51% and between Maldi Tof and Staph API it was only 25.70%. The most prominent NAS species isolated from SA herds were S. chromogenes, S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus. Udder infections with species of NAS were compared based on parity and days in milk of infected cows. S. chromogenes was more prominent in primiparous cows and in cows with more than 3 lactations, while S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus was mostly isolated from older cows. All these three species were mainly isolated from cows in late lactation (200 days plus). NAS species isolated from herds on pastures were compared to those fed on total mix rations (TMR) and inter-herd rations were determined. More S. chromogenes was isolated from pasture based herds (79.74%) compared to TMR systems (63.93%), while more S. haemolyticus was isolated from TMR herds. The SCC varied between species. Eighty percent of samples with S. epidermidis and 49.6% with S. chromogenes had SCC exceeding 1 million cells per ml milk. The ability of the NAS species to produce biofilm and the level thereof was determined in 200 isolates Antibiotic susceptibility testing r (Kirby Bauer) was also done on these 200 NAS isolates.
P39 - Evaluation of an automate milk leukocyte differential test for selective dry-cow therapy on farm
Giuseppina Giacinti, Istituto Zooprofilattico del Lazio e della Toscana M.Aleandri
Daniele Sagrafoli, Istituto Zooprofilattico del Lazio e della Toscana M.Aleandri
Andreana Tammaro, Istituto Zooprofilattico del Lazio e della Toscana M.Aleandri
Laura Gemma, Istituto Zooprofilattico del Lazio e della Toscana M.Aleandri
Hillary Lanzi, Università degli Studi della Tuscia
Martina Reitano, Università degli Studi di Perugia
Francesco Diuccio, Zoetis Italy srl
Simonetta Amatiste, Istituto Zooprofilattico del Lazio e della Toscana M.Aleandri
The study was to evaluate an automate milk leukocyte differential (MLD) test to identify intramammary infection (IMI) aimed at the choice selective dry-cow therapy. The instrument (QScout MLD AAD) uses fluorescence microscopy providing values for each cell type and to supply a categorical quarter diagnosis of healthy vs infected. The try was carried out in a herd of 1200 lactating cows located in Italy. 125 healthy cows, with at most a quarter positive for MLD and no clinical mastitis (CM) in the last three months before of the dry-off, were enrolled. TC group (n.59) received blanket dry-cow therapy (BDCT), the TS group (n.66) received selective dry-cow therapy (SDCT) based on the MLD, all received an internal sealant. The day before of the dry-off and at 14 days after calving, milk quarter samples were collected and analyzed for MLD, directly on the farm and in the laboratory for somatic cell count (SCC) and bacteriological culture. The cows were monitored for up to 90 days of lactation for CM. The analysis was to compare the performance of the MLD test using the microbiological results as the gold standard test. Bacteriological status, CM and SCC were compared. The quarters with a positive diagnosis to MLD were 66 out of 476 samples. The sensibility and specificity of test were respectively 0.63 and 0.91. Based on the MLD, in TS group 32 quarters out of 249 (12.8%) were treated, while in TC group all the quarters received treatment. Bacterial agents were isolated in 8.4% in TS group and 8.8% in TC group. No CM were observed during the dry-off period. At calving, TS and TC groups, SCC did not show significant differences (log 4.6 vs log 4.5) as well as the prevalence of IMI (8.4% vs 6.6%). In the lactation cases of CM were similar. The results underline a high specificity of MLD test, suggesting it as a reliable diagnostic method for use also in field conditions. Our study prove benefits of SDCT without detrimental effects on the occurrence of new IMI and SCC.
P40 - Can an automatic farm water cleaning system improve udder health?
Nyman A.-K., Växa Sverige, Department of Animal Health and Development, Stockholm, Sweden
Janpers, E., Västerby 11, Stora Skedvi, Sweden
Larsson, P., Kårtorp Sörgården, Tibro, Sweden
Oscarsson, R., Viridis Chemica R & D, Östersund, Sweden
Landin, H., Växa Sverige, Department of Animal Health and Development, Stockholm, Sweden
Inferior water hygiene is regarded as a risk factor for elevated cell counts, decreased yield and higher culling rates. Automatic cleaning of the water system on a farm is therefore sometimes implemented in dairy herds. The aim of this case report was to evaluate if an improvement of udder health could be found after installation of a water cleaning system. A system for automatic low dosage of hydrogen peroxide was installed to the water system in 2 Swedish dairy herds. The effect on water hygiene was evaluated with bacteriological culturing and PCR analysis. Milk yield, somatic cell counts (SCC), new infection rate (NIR) and culling, obtained from the monthly test milk recordings, for the trial period was compared to data from the same period previous year. The trial period was 12 months for Herd 1 and 4 months for Herd 2 with the same months the year before start as control. Mixed multivariable linear or logistic regression models was used to investigate the association between use of water cleaning and udder health, milk yield and culling, and each herd were analyzed separately.
Analysis of the water hygienic parameters showed that the automatic cleaning system effectively both removed and then prevented formation of biofilm in the water systems. However, on both herds the cow SCC was significantly higher after the installation (p <0.05). NIR was significantly higher in Herd 1, but significantly lower in Herd 2 (p
No positive effect on SCC was seen in either herd and NIR increased in one of them. Effect on yield and culling in this trial was more dependent of study month and year than documented actual water hygiene.
P41 - An evolutionary operation framework as a tool in herd-specific mastitis control
Emanuelson, U, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
Persson, Y, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden
Rustas, B-O, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
The aim of this study was to evaluate if EVOP (Evolutionary Operation) can be used as a management tool to identify the effect of mastitis control options on improving udder health in dairy herds. The concept of EVOP-dairy is based on five principles: 1) Farmer-driven identification of areas to improve and relevant interventions; 2) Establish herd specific goals for the interventions; 3) Define a study period with a short time frame; 4) Apply a simple, but at the same time statistically sound designs - including data access; and 5) Regular estimation of effects and frequent reporting to the farmer. Two dairy herds with automatic milking systems, on-line somatic cell counters and an interest to improve their udder health status were recruited for the study. The herds had 150 and 140 milking cows, the milk production was 12 000 and 11 000 kg milk per cow and year and the average bulk tank somatic cell counts were 240 000 and 260 000 cells per ml, respectively. A number of problem areas and related mastitis control options were identified in a participatory approach in each herd and some of the control options were subsequently implemented. Effects of the interventions were evaluated by their effect on somatic cell counts, using multivariate dynamic linear models. The results show that EVOP is possible to implement for mastitis management in dairy herds and that the approach was appreciated by the farmers. However, the results also show that there are limitations with respect to study design, since it may be difficult to apply randomized and parallel group designs, due to practical limitations in the herds and the nature of mastitis. This makes it difficult to realize the full benefits of EVOP when it is applied to mastitis management. EVOP can be an improvement of current herd advisory procedures and thus be a benefit to the farmers, but further developments, especially of a computerized support, is necessary.
P42 - Management of subclinical mastitis in organic and conventional Swedish dairy herds
Emanuelson, U, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
Fall, N, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
Managing clinical mastitis in dairy cows is relatively straight forward, while the same does not hold for subclinical mastitis. Little is known about what actions a farmer takes upon identification of a cow with subclinical mastitis, and if this differs between organically and conventionally managed herds. A questionnaire study was conducted to investigate aspects related to management of subclinical mastitis in organic and conventional dairy herds in Sweden. The questionnaire contained 20 actions related to management of a cow with subclinical mastitis, which the respondents ranked on a scale from 1 to 6, where 1 was "never" and 6 was "always". A random sample of 300 organic and 500 conventional farmers were sent a questionnaire in the beginning of June 2014, with a reminder in September and a dead line in October. Comparisons of answers between organic and conventional farmers was done with Kruskal-Wallis tests. A total of 192 usable questionnaires were received, with a response rate of 30.3% among the organic and 20.2% among the conventional farmers. Herd characteristics of organic and conventional were similar, except that organic farms had pipe-line/tie-stall systems to a much lower degree and that a higher proportion had post-secondary school education than conventional responders. The most common action when identifying a cow with subclinical mastitis was to milk the affected quarter thoroughly (mean score in organic/conventional 5.3/5.3), followed by additional tests of the milk of the cow (5.0/4.8) and checking the somatic cell counts of the whole herd (4.9/5.1). The least common action was to put the cow in a sick pen (2.1/2.2), followed by culling the cow immediately (2.1/2.2) or calling for the veterinarian immediately (2.3/2.8). There were no significant differences between the two types of herds, except that conventional herds ranked contacting a veterinarian immediately higher than organic herds (p=0.05).
P43 - Early lactation udder health problems in first parity dairy cows
Persson Waller K, National Veterinary Institute and Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
Lundberg Å, Växa Sverige, Stockholm, Sweden
Nyman A-K, Växa Sverige, Stockholm, Sweden
First parity cows (FPC) may have high cow somatic cell counts (CSCC), indicating intramammary infection (IMI), already at the first test milking. Our previous results indicate that the prevalence of IMI in FPC differs between herds, but a larger study on udder health of such cows is warranted. Thus, we used CSCC from the first 2 test milkings to investigate IMI in Swedish FPC. Another aim was to use CSCC patterns to find herds suitable for studies on risk factors for IMI in FPC. All herds in the official cow control scheme 2014-2016 with at least 10 FPC per year were selected (n=1 597 herds). Based on the CSCC from the first 2 monthly test milkings each FPC was assigned a CSCC category (low-low, low-high, high-high, high-low, inconclusive) using the cut-offs low=100 000/ml. Descriptive statistics on CSCC and CSCC categories on cow level was calculated. The categories were used to describe the herd level CSCC pattern among FPC. The number of FPC included per year was 51 326-52 080, representing approximately 80% of all FPC in the selected herds. The median CSCC at the first and second test milking was approximately 58 000/ml and 37 000/ml, respectively. More than 85% of the cows were allocated a CSCC category, around 52% were low-low and 14% were high-high indicating good and poor udder health, respectively, at both test milkings. Approximately 6%, 16% and 14% were categorized as low-high, high-low and inconclusive, respectively. The CSCC patterns varied markedly between herds. For example, the median (50% central range) herd prevalence of low-low FPC, ie most likely healthy cows, was 54% (43;63) in 2016. The same year, the median prevalence of high-high cows, ie most likely cows with chronic subclinical mastitis, was 12% (8;18).
The results indicate that IMI is not uncommon in Swedish early lactation FPC. Using the CSCC patterns, success and problem herds suitable for studies on risk factors for mastitis were identified.
P44 - Antimicrobial resistant species: causative agents of chronic mastitis and a food safety issue
Elaine Meade, Cellular Health and Toxicology Research Group, Institute of Technology Sligo, County Sligo, Ireland
Mark Slattery, Veterinarian Registered Practice Leitrim Ireland
Mary Garvey , Cellular Health and Toxicology Research Group, Institute of Technology Sligo, County Sligo, Ireland
Bovine mastitis is a major economic burden globally often having a drastic impact on infected cattle while also representing a threat to public health safety. S. aureus, S. dysgalactiae, S. uberius are some of the main contagious pathogens while B. cereus and E. coli are the key environmental causative agents of disease. The antibiotic control measures administered for mastitis are no longer as effective, evident by chronic and re-occurring cases of infection. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in microbial species represents a major issue resulting in prolong incidence of disease. Additionally, the presence of fungal species as causative agents of infection is also a distinct possibility. At present there are no antifungal agents used to control mastitis of fungal origin. This study will assess mastitis samples for the presence of microbial pathogens, both bacterial and fungal. Once isolated and identified, pathogens were tested for their sensitivity to a range of relevant antimicrobial agents i.e. penicillin/streptomycin, trimoxazole and marbofloxacin, the most commonly administered antibiotics for the treatment of mastitis in food producing animals. Additionally, the susceptibility of fungal isolates from chronic cases of infection was determined to amphotericin B and fluconazole antifungal drugs. All isolated species were pasteurised as per the standard protocol for milk intended for human consumption to determine the risk of pathogens to public health safety. Bacterial species isolated include E. coli, B. cereus, S. aureus, S. uberius and P. aeruginosa. Fungal species isolated include Candida, Cryptococcus and Trichosporon sp. All microbial isolates showed high levels of resistance to antimicrobial exposure and pasteurisation with significant microbial survival seen for each species. The findings of this study indicate that the treatment of mastitis needs to be adjusted to combat the presence of fungal causative agents of infection and AMR.
P45 - Acoustic Pulse Therapy (APT) a non-antibiotic treatment and prevention for mastitis in dairy cows
Leitner G, Armenta, Israel
Papirov E, Armenta, Israel
Shefy S, Armenta, Israel
Introduction. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mammary infections ranges between 20-40%. As of today, the excess drug treatment in clinical mammary infections are antibiotics given during lactation. In cases of subclinical infections, no treatment is used during lactation and treatment is delivered upon entry into the dry period. In recent years, the awareness of the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria lead to legislative processes to reduce the use of antibiotics in animal farming, thus, there is a need for non-antibiotic methods to treat mastitis. Previous experience with Acoustic Pulse Therapy (APT) on 233 cows identified with clinical or subclinical mastitis showed >70% success in curing the infected quarter. Significant milk yield increase, reduction in SCC as well as bacterial elimination was shown. Culling rate of clinically infected cows at the APT group was 7.7% compared to 56% in the control group.
Methods. A new APT device developed specifically for treating dairy cows. The device produces deep penetration acoustic pulses that are distributed over a large treatment area. Fifty cows: 21 APT & 29 control, were treated during dry-off periods, 4-5 weeks before parturition. Cows were paired according to lactation, daily milk yield, DIM, SCC, history of infection, bacteriology (if exist) and number of infected quarters. In each pair, one cow was then assigned to APT and the second to control.
Results. Milk yield during the first 100 d increased ~28% in 2nd lactation with no difference between groups, was significantly higher in APT in 3rd lactation (14.4% vs 2.5) and higher in 4th and additional lactations (2.6 vs -0.6). New infections during 100d were significantly lower in APT (9.5% vs 24%) and average log SCC in the first 100d was significantly lower in APT (4.78 vs 5.06).
Conclusions. In an early study, APT was found more effective than antibiotics in treating clinical mastitis and an option to treat subclinical mastitis during the lactation. In contrast to antibiotic treatment, APT does not require bacterial identification nor discarding of milk after treatment and it is an easy to use confined treatment of cow's udders. In the current study, treatment during the dry-off period can be an alternative to the use of antibiotics.
P46 - An association between udder morphology, teat-end lesions and intramammary infections in dairy cows of selected farms in Selangor, Malaysia
Rozaihan Mansor, Department of Farm and Exotic Animal Medicine and Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Kesavan Sivagiganesan, Department of Farm and Exotic Animal Medicine and Surgery, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Sharina Omar, Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Sharifah Salmah Syed Hussain, Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Siti Zubaidah Ramanoon, Department of Farm and Exotic Animal Medicine and Surgery, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Udder morphology and teat-end lesions have always been associated with milk leakage and udder health, a significant risk factor for intramammary infection (IMI). A study was conducted to investigate possible association between udder morphology and teats-end lesions with intramammary infection in dairy cows from selected farms in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 32 composite milk samples were collected from five different dairy farms in Selangor for bacterial isolation and identification and antibiotic sensitivity test. The udder morphology and presence of teat-end lesions on the animals were also investigated. From a total of 32 udders inspected, 31.25% were in normal shape, 9.38% were large pendulous, 9.38% were large between-hindquarter, 31.25% were overall small and 18.74% were small but pendulous. The most common teat-end lesion identified was smooth raised ring 53.9% (69/128). Expectedly, the predominant bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (24%) and infection with Corynebacterium spp. was only found in cow with overall small udder conformation. Teat-end lesions did not have any significant association with mastitis and coagulase negative Staphylococcus species was found to be resistant towards streptomycin, meanwhile Streptococcus sp. was resistant to oxytetracycline and streptomycin. In conclusion, udder morphology and teat-end lesions did not cause any significant changes in IMI among dairy cows of UPM Foster Farms.
P47 - Internet of things enabled early detection of mastitis
C Davison, Department Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, 204 George Street, Glasgow, G1 1XW UK
C Michie, Department Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, 204 George Street, Glasgow, G1 1XW UK
I Andonovic, Department Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, 204 George Street, Glasgow, G1 1XW UK
C Tachtatzis, Department Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, 204 George Street, Glasgow, G1 1XW UK
M Gilroy, Afimilk Ltd., Baltic Chambers Glasgow, UK
D McDonald, Afimilk Ltd., Baltic Chambers Glasgow, UK
J R Baines, formerly Fullwood Ltd, Ellesmere, SY12 9DF UK
Wireless enabled low cost sensors and decision support tools can enhance farm efficiency by facilitating data sharing. Validation on a commercial farm shows that mastitis can be detected 1-2 days in advance of a human operator.
Automated (oestrus) detection systems are used on many dairy farms. Many process motion data to provide information on activity, feeding and rumination. A significant opportunity exists to enhance performance through integrating disparate sensor data to optimize performance.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Activity, feeding and rumination was recorded on a commercial dairy herd of 200 Holstein Friesian cattle using Afimilk SilentHerdsman. Milk fat, protein and lactose plus four quarter milk conductivity measurements were recorded at every milking by a Fullwood M2erlin milking robot. The cows were monitored during March to October 2017. 47 instances of mastitis were recorded.
Sensors within the milking robot measure the conductivity of the milk from each teat. Conductivity increases occur in advance of visible changes in foremilk or udder tissue. There are instances where sensors produce misleading readings. Combining conductivity and feeding/rumination data improves measurement reliability.
The milking robot alerts when milk conductivity increases above a nominal normal value.
Normally, feeding/rumination times are constant within +/- 20 %. Observations indicate a fall in feeding/rumination behavior with a mastitis infection. The conductivity increase is observed. Mastitis was confirmed by farm staff.
Milk conductivity and feeding/rumination was examined from 47 cases of mastitis. The farmer recorded welfare issues, mastitis, treatment/recovery time. In all cases where feeding/rumination alerts coincided with milk conductivity changes, mastitis was observed. In more than 70% of cases, feeding/rumination indicated illness prior to farmer detection. Milk conductivity data confirmed the likelihood of mastitis.